Happy World Giraffe Day and World Giraffe Week! Children and community members in the Tarangire region of Tanzania celebrate their national animal at a Giraffe Fun Day at Esilialei Primary School. Thank you as always to our funders for helping to make this celebration happen!
To survive, animals must find nutritious food and drinking water—sometimes during long dry seasons or cold periods—and at the same time avoid being eaten. Plant-eating mammals with hooves for feet are an extraordinarily diverse group of animals and are critically important in East African savannas. Yet they must compete more and more with humans for space in a fast-changing world while also evading hungry lions, leopards, and other natural predators. A new study by scientists from the Wild Nature Institute, University of Zurich and Pennsylvania State University, published in the Journal of Mammalogy, investigated the habitat needs of a community of hooved-mammal species in the Tarangire Ecosystem of northern Tanzania, and how vegetation, water, presence of humans, and risks from predators influenced their use of these habitats.
This was the first study of its kind in the Tarangire Ecosystem, which supports the ecotourism hotspot of Tarangire National Park and is the heart of Maasailand where cattle herders and wildlife have thrived together for centuries. Tarangire differs from other areas where wild ungulates have been intensively studied—like Serengeti National Park or Kruger National Park—in that Tarangire’s wildlife, cattle-keeping people, and farmers all share the landscape, and animals can move unimpeded because the entire region is unfenced.
“Ungulates of different body sizes have different needs and threats,” said the study’s lead author Nicholas James, who conducted the research as a graduate student at University of Zurich. For instance, large ungulates like adult giraffes may have less to fear from natural predators but may face more danger from humans, and smaller animals may have more specialized food requirements. “We wanted to know what features draw each ungulate species to certain areas so we can pinpoint important habitat for each of those species,” James said. This information is important for land managers to maintain thriving populations of wild ungulates and keep the landscape healthy, which is the foundation of Tanzania’s important ecotourism economy.
James and his co-authors counted and mapped six hooved mammal species in dry and rainy seasons over seven years in and around Tarangire National Park and the adjacent Manyara Ranch Conservancy, including unprotected village lands. The ungulates studied included the iconic, massive giraffe down to the little dik-dik—both of which specialize on eating leaves of woody plants—as well as the large, water-loving, grass-eating waterbuck, and three medium-sized antelopes that eat both woody-plant leaves and grass, the impala, Thomson’s gazelle, and Grant’s gazelle. The scientists looked at how the different species used areas depending on the type and greenness of plant food, the thickness of the bushes (where lions often lurk), and how far the areas were from rivers (which provide vital drinking water but also hide predators) and cattle herder settlements (where human disturbance is higher but the humans also keep away predators). The study highlighted the importance of food (vegetation) for all species, as well as nearness to year-round rivers for most but not all. Some species appear to be tolerant of human presence and even congregated close to cattle herder settlements, presumably because of lower predator densities there. The researchers found that antelopes that ate both grass and woody-plant leaves allowed them to avoid areas with high human activity while meeting their dietary needs. Importantly, the presence and number of herbivores were sensitive to short and long-term variation in rainfall suggesting they are vulnerable to drought.
“We show that the focus of research and management should be directed towards the Tarangire Ecosystem’s free-flowing rivers and associated habitat along those rivers,” said Derek Lee, associate research professor at Pennsylvania State University and senior author of the study. “In dry landscapes like East African savannas, water resources are increasingly monopolized by humans, so protection of waterways in human-dominated landscapes, and ensuring sufficient access for wildlife is of primary conservation importance.” Another key finding of the study was that traditional cattle herders and some ungulate species can share the same space and thus appear to be compatible, so long as the human impacts remain relatively low.
Literature: James, N.L., Bond M.L., Ozgul A., and Lee, D.E. 2022. Trophic processes constrain seasonal ungulate distributions at two scales in an East African savanna. Journal of Mammalogy doi/10.1093/jmammal/gyac050
Wild Nature Institute is pleased to announce the publication of a new book co-edited by WNI scientists Drs. Derek Lee and Monica Bond, along with our colleague Dr. Christian Kiffner. The book is called “Tarangire: Human-Wildlife Coexistence in a Fragmented Ecosystem” and is published by Springer Nature. We pulled together academics studying humans and wildlife inhabiting the Tarangire Ecosystem of northern Tanzania , and asked them to contribute chapters. The Tarangire region, where WNI has been studying giraffes and other ungulates for the past 10 years, is remarkable in that the ecosystem is still ecologically functional. As we note on the final page of the book, Tarangire hosts hundreds of thousands of people, millions of livestock, large mines, booming towns, two major tarmac roads, and a patchwork of agricultural fields—and yet still supports one of the most significant long-distance migrations of wildlife remaining in the world, much of it taking place on community land. It also is home to one of the most important populations of giraffes in Tanzania, and therefore in the world. Wildlife numbers have declined historically, but the mere fact that many populations are stable, and some are increasing, despite all the odds, is testament to the singularity of the place, and demonstrates that humans and wildlife can indeed coexist.
This edited volume summarizes multidisciplinary work on wildlife conservation in the Tarangire Ecosystem. By drawing together human-centered, wildlife-centered, and interdisciplinary research, it contributes to furthering our understanding of the often complex mechanisms underlying human-wildlife interactions in dynamic landscapes. By synthesizing the wealth of knowledge generated by anthropologists, ecologists, conservationists, entrepreneurs, geographers, sociologists, and zoologists over the last decades, this book also highlights practicable and locally adapted solutions for shaping human-wildlife interactions towards coexistence. It is written for students, scholars, and practitioners who are interested in reconciling the needs of human populations with those of the environment in general and large mammal populations in particular.
Wild Nature Institute’s Derek Lee and Monica Bond traveled to Tulsa Oklahoma for the Conservation on Tap event at the Tulsa Zoo. Breweries offered tastings of their finest craft brews, and all the proceeds benefited Wild Nature Institute’s research, education, and actions to conserve giraffes in Tanzania. Thanks so much to Tulsa Zoo, all the participating breweries, and all the attendees for standing tall for giraffes!
by Wild Nature Institute
Masai giraffes eat many species of woody plants, but they prefer eating sickle bush, a shrub disliked and removed by people with livestock. A native bush-encroaching shrub species called Sickle Bush (Dichrostachys cinerea) is disliked by livestock keepers and rangeland managers, but loved as forage by wild giraffes, according to research published this week in the Journal of Mammalogy.
The study, authored by Matana Levi, Master's student at the Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology in Arusha Tanzania, investigated woody plant species eaten by endangered Masai giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, and compared use versus availability to determine preferences and avoidance.
The findings showed that giraffe significantly preferred foraging on bush-encroaching species such as the native Sickle Bush at local and landscape spatial scales and in both the wet and dry seasons. The results of this study suggest that browsing wildlife such as giraffes could be adversely affected by the removal of Sickle Bush from rangelands.
Recent rapid habitat changes and exploitation of natural resources by people have led to increased concerns about proper land management across Africa. In East African savannas, rangelands are often converted to farms, but sometimes rangelands see an expansion of native woody vegetation into previously open grass-dominated lands. Levi said, "Our data indicate against removal of Sickle Bush because endangered giraffes prefer to eat it. Managing mixed-use rangelands exclusively for grazing livestock would negatively impact browsing wildlife like giraffes."
Some land managers believe that a reduction of bush-encroaching species like D. cinerea is needed to maintain grazing resources for wildlife and livestock, but most studies have only examined how grazing species such as cattle and buffalo respond to a shift from grass-dominated to woody-dominated savanna. Before the current study, little was known about how increasing abundance of woody plants in a savanna might affect browsing species such as giraffes.
These new findings overturn most biologists and rangeland managers' traditional prejudices against the expansion of bush-encroaching species and efforts to maintain grazing lawns. Despite the negative attitudes of livestock managers towards woody species in rangeland ecosystems, these species contribute significantly to the quality and quantity of food for savanna browsers.
In 2021, the Wild Nature Institute celebrated 10 years of science, education, and advocacy for wildlife in savannas of East Africa and forests of the western U.S.A. Both regions are biologically rich but threatened by human activities. Our 2021 annual report details all of our activities this year. We could not have accomplished our goals without the support of our wonderful donors and partners. Thank you!!
As practitioners or beneficiaries of science, we all have a stake in ensuring that science is not hijacked or corrupted by special interests. Science is a practical method to gain knowledge, but some knowledge is dangerous to those people protecting a paradigm they hold dear, or industries that profit from public ignorance about their activities. Like democracy, science requires free speech and free press to function properly such that the marketplace of ideas can consider any new, even shocking idea, and then empirically judge its veracity. In practice, the marketplace of ideas is severely skewed in favor of entrenched power structures and status quo ideologies of thought collectives, but dissidents still can and do change the world.
"When scientists are attacked: strategies for dissident scientists and whistleblowers" is a chapter in the book 'Conservation Science and Advocacy for a Planet in Peril', edited by Dominick DellaSala and published by Elsevier. The chapter was written to help scientists whose findings or ideas challenge powerful economic or intellectual interests and find themselves under attack. There is a long history of intellectual gatekeeping of ideas in science. Examples include the denigration of Darwin's theory of evolution and Galileo's discoveries, which challenged the authority of the Catholic Church. The strong influence that ideological elites have had on science has obvious scientific, political, and economic implications, yet scientists have few roadmaps for navigating the minefield they will encounter when promoting findings that conflict with powerful peoples' status quo. Outspoken scientists often risk their professional reputations, and even careers. Many scientists are afraid to even practice good science when they know it will go against powerful interests.
After defining contrarian scientists, dissident scientists, and whistleblowers, the authors describe likely responses from gatekeepers and thought collectives, along with strategies for dissident scientists and whistleblowers to get their voices heard, or just to defend themselves from ideological attacks. There are signs of progress in making science more transparent and open, which in turn could help amplify the voices of dissidents and whistleblowers. The authors conclude with a call for honesty and integrity in the practice of science, scientific publishing (including editorial decisions), peer review, education, and public policy. Such activities will dissolve the power that the gatekeepers and thought collectives wield to suppress contrarian and dissenting scientists that have legitimate and provocative research views to contribute.
The book is a history of scientific activism as well as a guide for scientists whose conscience demands they raise their voices to be heard in this age of disinformation.
We have finished our giraffe photographic identification surveys for 2021! We surveyed Tarangire, Lake Manyara, Arusha, and Serengeti National Parks and part of Ngorongoro Conservation Area - a substantial portion of giraffe populations throughout northern Tanzania. This marks our 10th year of data collection! Now we can relax for a bit, like this magnificent male giraffe chilling out on the shore of Lake Manyara.
lAlthough female giraffes have closer ‘friends’ than male giraffes, male giraffes have more ‘acquaintances’ than females, according to a new study by an international team of scientists. The study demonstrates that giraffes form a complex multilevel society that is driven by differences in the social connections among individuals, which could have conservation implications for the endangered species.
“The degree to which an animal is connected to others in its social network influences reproductive success and population ecology, spread of information, and even how diseases move through a population,” said Derek Lee, associate research professor at Penn State and co-author of the paper. “Information about sociality therefore can provide important guidance for conservation.”
The research team examined social connectedness and social movements of endangered Masai giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of northern Tanzania using data collected over 5 years. The work, led by Juan Lavista Ferres of the Microsoft AI for Good Research Lab, involved constructing the social network of more than 1,000 free-ranging giraffes. The team presents their results in a paper appearing September 27 in the journal Animal Behaviour.
“We found that male giraffes overall had higher social connectedness than females, which means males interact with greater numbers of other individuals than females,” said Lee. “Older males had the shortest social path length to all the other giraffes in the network. This might reflect the mating strategy of males, who roam widely across the landscape searching for females to mate with and make connections in the process. Young males had the most social ties and moved most often among groups, reflecting social exploration as they prepare to disperse away from their mothers.”
According to the study, adult female giraffes tend to have fewer but stronger relationships with each other than males and younger females, a trend that has also been observed in giraffe populations elsewhere in Africa.
The results reveal an additional layer of complexity to giraffe societies beyond what was seen in earlier research. Earlier research showed that adult females in this population have formed about a dozen distinct groups, or communities, of 60 to 90 individuals that tend to associate more with each other than with members of the other groups, even when the groups use the same spaces. Given the high social connectedness of males, the current study found that the full population, including calves and adult males, has a more complex structure, with the female communities embedded within three socially distinct ‘super-communities’ of between 800 to 900 individuals, and one ‘oddball’ super-community of 155 individuals in a small, isolated area.
“Among giraffes, adult females have enduring social relationships and form distinct and stable social communities with a relatively large number of other females, while, in their perpetual search for mating opportunities, adult males connect the adult female communities, forming super-communities,” said Monica Bond, a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Zurich and co-author. “This type of complex society has evolutionary and conservation advantages, because the dynamics of the social system should allow gene flow between groups, which is an important part of maintaining a healthy and robust population.”
The current research adds to a growing body of literature demonstrating that giraffes live in a socially structured society, despite the fact that herds have what researchers call “fission-fusion” dynamics, with the size and composition of the population constantly changing as animals move through the environment. Fission-fusion grouping dynamics are common among mammals, such as elephants, bats, some primates, and cetaceans, but, according to the researchers, this study is the first to demonstrate that giraffes reside in a complex society with dynamic herds embedded into stable communities within stable super-communities, all of which are driven by the variation in social connections among individuals.
“The large scale of the study, in terms of the size of the landscape and the sheer number of animals, enabled us to uncover an upper apex level of social structure that was previously unknown,” said Lavista. “Using Microsoft’s AI tools allowed us to visualize and analyze a large volume data to gain meaningful insights about giraffes over the 5 years of study.”
The researchers believe the complex nature of giraffe populations could impact conservation efforts for these endangered giraffes, including translocation efforts that move individuals to new areas. They caution that translocating a small number of individuals to new areas should be limited, because such invasive actions destabilize the intricate web of social relationships among giraffes.
In addition to Lee and Bond also of Wild Nature Institute, and Lavista, the research team includes Md Nasir and Avleen Bijral at the Microsoft AI for Good Research Lab; Yu-Chia Chen at the University of Washington, Seattle; and Fred Bercovitch at Kyoto University in Japan.
Juan M. Lavista Ferres, Derek E. Lee, Md Nasir, Yu-Chia Chen, Avleen S. Bijral, Fred B. Bercovitch, Monica L. Bond. 2021. Social connectedness and movements among communities of giraffes vary by sex and age class. Animal Behaviour https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2021.08.008
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